Recite and your Fosterer is Most Honourable.

Who taught with the pen.

He taught man that which he did not know.

 

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE HOLY QURAN

 

Introduction

 

Its very tragic that most of us recite the Holy Quran, the word of ALLAH, the book of instructions, the only Source of authentic knowledge, without understanding it. We offer Salat, reciting passages in Arabic which we do not mean, because again we do not understand what we say.

            In our worldly life, for nominal financial and social benefits, we take pains even in old age, to learn any language imposed on us. We spend hundreds and thousands of rupees on private tuitions for our children, to make them understand highly complicated subjects of Mathematics and Science, but when the problem of understanding the Holy Quran  is posed, we are indifferent. Are we not answerable for this indifferent attitude of ours? Yes! It is in response to this fear that this work has been prepared so as to help the English knowing readers of the Holy Quran in learning basic important rules of grammer used in the Holy Quran.

            The Holy Quran contains 1800 and odd basic root words which have been repeated in a variety of grammatic forms. Some of these words convey more than one meaning. All these words add up to 2000 and odd. If one learns the meanings of these 2000 and odd words and the grammatic rules to use them correctly in framing sentences, then, Insha Allah, in due course of time, he may be able to understand nearly the whole of the Holy Quran without the help of any translation and he may also be able to offer his Salat knowing the meaning of every word he recites. Arent these great temptations to understand, memorise and digest this small book?

            May Allah help us, in fulfilling this desire with the sole aim of practically implementing all that we understand, and there by achieve success and happiness in this world and in the hereafter. Ameen.

 

Dr. MIR ANEESUDDIN, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Osm)

     

CONTENTS   

ELEMENTARY GRAMMER / PRONOUNS & WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS 

     

ARABIC WORDS

NOUN

Noun is the name of any person, place or thing. Following varieties of nouns deserve our attention.

PRONOUNS    

VERB  

Verb is a word that indicates an action associated with past, present  or  future.

WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS

PHASES AND SENTENCES

A group of two or more words is know as a ( compound ).

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

 

ARABIC WORDS

In Arabic language, most of the Nouns and Verbs are derived from words normally consisting of a minimum of 3 alphabets like

 

-                                     -

                                       He worshipped                                                            He did

 

            The meaning, gender, number, tense etc. of any root word can be altered, by adding appropriate alphabets in the beginning, middle or at the end and also by changing the signs above and below each alphabets.

I murder            

 

Murderer             

 

We murdered        

 

He murdered        

 

He was murdered 

 

            Thus from a single 3 lettered root word numerous other words can be derived but the basic meaning of the root words is normally retained in some form or the other.

            There are 8 signs which are marked above or below an alphabet to produce sounds shown below :

 

           u,      as in who

 

           a,      as in far

 

           e,      as in seen

 

           un ,    as in dhun

 

           an,     as in run

 

           in ,     as in pin.

 

               or      are used for abrupt stop, as in cut      for repeating the sound of an alphabet as in running, . Nouns can be identified by the prefix  as in  or in the signs  ,  or   on the last alphabet of a world  ,  or  . A verb can be identified when it is prefixed by ,  ,    or    and by the sign   on the last alphabet.

 

Past tense                           He has killed                                      

Present tense                      He knows                                  

Future tense                       He will strike                               

Future tense                        You will know                    

Order                                  ( you ) kill                               

            The number of alphabets and their signs in the case of the preposition used for joining nouns and verbs are fixed :

            from =                        over =                        in =

 

            The three lettered word   meaning to work, is usually selected to demonstrate the changes that can be brought about in the meaning, gender, tense etc. of a root word by altering the signs of and increasing the number of alphabets : works =

                You ( will ) work =                one who works =                        work =

When the root words contains the vowels   or  or then along with the signs some of the letters too are changed or even dropped. In the case of the root word   instead of writing    for the third person singular past tense, it is written as   that is   is replaced by . In the case of the root letter   for the imparative form, only one letter is used   meaning Guard as in   ( guard or save us from the punishment of fire )

 

 

CHAPTER II

 

NOUN   

Noun is the name of any person, place or thing. Following varieties of nouns deserve our attention.

 

1. INFLEXIBLE NOUN      

A noun which has not been derived from an infinitive :

              Elephant =                     Horse =

 

2. VERBAL NOUN              

A noun that has been derived from an infinitive and from which other words are derived :

( Infinitive )                  To murder                        =                    

( Noun )                         Murder                           =                      

( Derived subject )        Murderer                       =                    

( Derived object )         one who is murdered      =                

 

3. COMMON NOUN         

These nouns refer to Classes or groups of things :

           Star =                           House =

 

4. PROPER NOUN             

These nouns refer to particular persons, places or things like : 

When the alphabets   are prefixed to a common noun, it gets converted to a proper noun, imparting the meaning of the English article THE

The Star             

The House     

The noun in subjective case ( active ) ends in  Hamid became . The noun is objective case

( passive ) ends in  I struck Hamid  . The noun which is preceded by a preposition end in  I went towards Hamid  .

In case the noun is prefixed with  then the last alphabet will be marked by    respectively instead of   .

 

5. ACTIVE NOUN SUBJECT         

This noun is derived from the root word by adding after the first alphabet and marking the sign  on the central alphabet.

  -                          -                       

                                  One who helps                                   One who opens

 

6. PASSIVE NOUN OBJECT        

This noun is derived from the root word by prefixing and inserting between the second and third letters. The central alphabet is marked with the sign  .

    -                      -                     

                                  One who is helped                           one that is opened

 

7. NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME            

The noun has   with sign  prefixed to the root word. The central alphabet has the sign  if the Aorist verb   has   or  on the central alphabet of the root word. The central alphabet will have  marked on it, if the central alphabet of the Aorist verb also has  marked on it.

 

Name of Place / Time                                                                Aorist Verb

Opening                                                                            

Helping                                                        

Sitting                                                       

 

( Exceptions to the rule )

                                

                                 

                                

 

8. NOUN OF THE INSTRUMENT             

Names of working instruments. There are three forms

Plough                                            (   )

Key                                           ( )   

Fan                                          ( )      

 

9. ADJECTIVE                        

These words indicate qualities or attributes of nouns. In some cases, after the second alphabet of the root word, one of the vowels , or is added as follows :

Good  ( )                             

Dignified   ( )                            

Brave                             ( )          

 

Following forms are also used

Difficult                                

Beautiful                              

Hard                                   

Very happy                             

Beneficent                        

 

10. NOUNS OF EXAGGERATION              

To express an excess of some quality, following terms of the root word are used.

Very cautious                                                     

Very merciful                                                   

Heavy eater                                                    

Very learned                                                    

Very elderly                                                      

Very truthful                                                  

Cutter                                                          

Great bestower                                               

Very poor                                                   

Very peculiar                                                  

Great differentiator                                        

One who laughs                                               

Established one                                                 

Very holy                                                     

One who finds excuses                                           

 

11. COMPARATIVE NOUN               

These nouns are used for comparison. Derived from the root word the word means one who has the capacity to work. The forms ( masculine ) and ( feminine ) show comparative capacity of doing more work, following examples throw more light.

 

       Comparative                               Comparative                                   Noun

          feminine                                      masculine

                                                           

                                                                      

 

Comparative nouns do not have the prefix or the signs   or  on the last alphabet.

 

12. NOUN OF MULTITUDE                

The noun is derived by suffixing to certain singular nouns

              Many trees                         

 

13. RELATIVE NOUNS

When is suffixed to certain nouns, the derived word conveys the sense of belonging to :

    Belonging to Arabia                                

    Belonging to India                              

 

14. GENDER MASCULINE , FEMININE

In most cases a feminine noun can be identified by the suffix

     Masculine                                         

   Feminine                                        

 

When the masculine noun is the equivalent of the word its feminine is either or

       Masculine                                                               Feminine

      -                                                

                                                     

                                                     

There are some irregular forms which do not end in or or yet they are considered feminine :

          Fire =             Earth =               Sky =

 

15. NUMBER :- SINGULAR, DUAL, PLURAL

Dual ( for two things ): To convert singular to dual, is added at the end of the active noun, that is, subject and at the end of passive noun, that is, object . The alphabet just before or is marked with the sign  and the last of the dual always has the sign  .

                                                     Singular                           Dual Active                            Dual Passive

Two eyes                                                                          

Two hands                                                                                

Two learned women                                                        

 

Plural has two kinds :

( 1 ) Sound plural -

( 2 ) Broken plural

 

In sound plural alphabets of the singular form remain in the same order. is added at the end of active noun subject and at the end of passive noun object . The letter before is marked with  for the active noun and the letter before is marked with  for the passive noun. The last is marked with  . Feminine sound plural is made by adding to active masculine noun and to passive masculine noun.

                                        Singular                                    Plural Active                                 Plural Passive

Masc.                                                                             

Fem.                                                                             

 

SUMMARY OF NUMBER, SING., DUAL AND

SOUND PLURAL

 

                                  MASCULINE                                                                       FEMININE

 

Active

Passive

Preposition

Active

Passive

Preposition

Sing.

Dual

 

 

Plu.

 

 

 

 In broken plural, the original form of the singular is changed by addition or removal of alphabets and changing the signs associated with the original alphabets.

     Singular                                Plural                                             Singular                               Plural

                                                                                    

                                                                                 

                                                                              

 

 

CHAPTER III

 

PRONOUNS  

 

A pronoun is a word used in place or instead of a noun.

If is prefixed to passive pronouns, it imparts the sense of only,  )only you (, ( only we ).

 

NEAR

              3. Demonstrative Pronouns

 

 

 

 

FAR

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

S

D

P

S

D

P

S

D

P

S

D

P

This

Those

All

This

These

All

That

Those

All

That

Those

All

 

Two

these

 

Two

those

 

Two

Those

 

Two

Those

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Relative Pronouns

 

 

 

5. Introgative Pronouns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who

Who

Who

Who

Who

Who

 

 

 

 

 which

Which

two

Which

all

Which

 

Which

two

Which

all

 

 

 

 

 

 

who

 

what

which

 

 

 

 

 

 

for

living

beings

 

for

inani-

mates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Person

 

Second Person

 

Third Person

Gender

S

D

P

S

D

P

S

D

P

 

 

 

 

1. Personal Pronouns

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

we too

 

you

you two

you all

He/She

They two

They all

M

F

"

"

"

"

"

 

 

2. Possessive Pronouns to be suffixed     

 

 

 

 

 

Mine

Ours two

Ours

Yours

Yours two

Yours all

His\Her

Their two

Theirs

M

F

"

"

"

"

"

My fosterer  =

 Our Fosterer=

 

 Your heart =

We provided  them =

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

VERB 

 

Verb is a word that indicates an action associated with past, present or future.

1. INTRANSITIVE VERB                                                

            It denotes an action by the subject which does not pass over to an object.

                           Hamid came                           

 

2. TRANSITIVE VERB                                                  

            This verb denotes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object.

                           I struck Hamid                 

 

3.a PAST TENSE ACTIVE VOICE                

            In this form of the verb, the first and the last alphabets of a three lettered root word have the sign  marked on them, while the sing on the central alphabet may change.

                                        

Different forms of first, second and third persons, masculine and feminine genders and singular, dual and plural numbers used in the active voice of past tense are as follows : S = Singular, D = Dual and P = Plural.

 

 

 

 

S

He killed.

 

Masculine

D

They two killed.

Third

 

P

They all killed.

Person

 

S

She killed.

 

Feminine

D

They two killed.

 

 

P

They all killed.

Second

 

S

You killed.

Person

Masculine

D

You two killed.

 

 

P

You all killed.

Second

Feminine

S

You killed.

Person

 

D

You two killed.

 

 

P

You all killed.

First

Masculine or

S

I killed.

Person

Feminine

D/P

We killed.

 

To make negative prefix                                  

He did not kill                                          

We did not kill                                      

She did not kill                                       

You two did not kill                             

 

3.b PAST TENSE, PASSIVE VOICE                   

            To obtain this form of the verb, the sign of the first alphabet of all the active verbs is changed to  and that of the second to  .

                       Passive                                                      Active

                                                      

           He was made to go                                              He went

                                                       

              We were killed                                                 We killed

 

To make negative prefix                     

You were not killed                   

He was not made to go               

 

4. AORIST TENSE                                                        

            In Arabic language, present and future tense are represented by a single tense known as Aorist tense. These are some prefixes which sometime help in distinguishing present from future tense but mostly this verb represents both the tenses.

 

4.a AORIST TENSE, ACTIVE VOICE          

            This form of the verb has as a prefix to the root word, one of the alphabets marked with the sign  . The first alphabet of the root word is marked with the sign  and the last with the sign  , the central alphabet may have one of the three signs  ,  or  .

            Different forms of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons masculine and feminine genders, and singular, dual and plural numbers used in the active voice of Aorist tense are as follows :

 

 

 

S

He Kills / will kill.

 

Masculine

D

They two kill / will kill.

Third

 

P

They all kill / will kill.

Person

 

S

She kills / will kill

 

Feminine

D

They two kill / will kill.

 

 

P

They all kill / will kill.

 

 

S

You Kill / will kill.

 

Masculine

D

You two kill / will kill.

Second

 

P

You all kill / will kill.

Person

Feminine

S

You kill / will kill.

 

 

D

You two kill / will kill.

 

 

P

You all kill / will kill.

First

Masculine or

S

I kill / will kill.

Person

Feminine

D/P

We kill / will kill.

 

 

 

To make negative Aorist tense active voice is prefixed :

           He does not / will not kill                        

       We do not / will not kill                          

 

4.b AORIST TENSE, PASSIVE VOICE          

            To convert Aorist active to passive voice the sign  on the prefixed alphabets is changed to  and the third alphabet is marked with the sign  .

                         Passive                                                                    Active

      He is killed / will be killed                        He kills / will kill   

 

5. OTHER FORMS OF PAST TENSE

a) Immediate past / present perfect : When is prefixed to past tense, we obtain present perfect tense.

                                    He has come out                  

b) Past perfect : To obtain the form is prefixed to the past tense, third person singular.

                                    He had written                              

For different genders, numbers and persons, derivatives of  are used following the rules for past tense active voice detailed earlier. All the forms in that sequence are as follows :

 

 

FEMININE

 

 

MASCULINE

 

 

Person

P

D

S

P

D

S

Third

Second

First

M

FSD

and P

 

 

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

c) Probability in Past : Prefixing to the past tense imparts the sense of probability :

                                      Probably he has heard                

d) Wishing in Past : Wishing to have done an action in the past, the word is prefixed to past tense :

                                    Wish I had guarded                 

e) Used to do : Prefixing the word and its derivatives detailed above ( 5 b ), to the appropriate Aorist tense gives the sense of having used to do something.

                                   He used to worship                        

                                   I used to open                               

f) Negative Past : prefixed to aorist tense, converts it to negative past.

                                  He did not do                                    

                                  We did not kill                                  

 

6. OTHER FORMS OF AORIST TENSE

a) Present tense : prefixed to aorist tense active voice gives the sense of present tense.

                                  He kills                                                                    

b) Future tense : When the letter is prefixed to an aorist tense, it gives the sense of near future and when the word   is prefixed, it conveys the sense of distant future :

                                  He will help them ( in near future )

                                  He will go ( after some time )

c) Future certainity : When aorist tense is prefixed with  and suffixed with  and the  on the last letter of the root word is changed to  the verb conveys the sense of definitely doing something in future.

                                  He will definitely do

d) Future Negative : When is  prefixed to an aorist tense, it conveys the sense of never doing something in future.

                                  He will never do

e) Should do :  Prefixed to an aorist tense conveys the tense of should do :

                                  He should do

f) Should not do : Prefixed to an aorist tense verb gives the tense of should not do :

                                  He should not do

g) Will be : When  is prefixed to past tense, it conveys the sense of will be done in future :

                                  When it will be opened 

h) Changes due to prefixes : When  and  are prefixed to the aorist tense, the last alphabet of those verbs which do not end in  are to be marked by the sign =  . For verbs which end in  this  is dropped ( except in feminine plural )  . When  are prefixed to aorist tense not ending  in the last alphabet is marked with =  . For verbs ending in  this  is dropped  .

 

7 a) Imperative mood

            Imperative mood ( ordering or asking someone to do something ) is obtained from aorist tense second person. First aorist tense alphabet  in the beginning is removed, then if the central alphabet is marked by  or  the alphabet  with the sign  is prefixed. If the central alphabet is marked with then prefixed alphabet is also marked with . In both cases the last alphabet is marked with the sign .

                         Imperative                Aorist               Imperative            Aorist

                                                                     

Imperative mood of different numbers and genders

                                                Feminine                              Masculine

Aorist      

                                                  

For root alphabets that start with  this  is dropped along with the alphabet of aorist tense  and then the last alphabet is marked with the sign .

                      Imperative                    Aorist                   Imperative                 Aorist

                                                    

( you ) order                                                                        ( you ) eat

 

7 b) Prohibitive

            To obtain this form ( ordering or asking someone not to do something )  is prefixed to the aorist tense second person and the last alphabet is marked with the sign .

                                                    Feminine                                            Masculine

 

                                                               

 

7 c) Imperative and Prohibitive moods of first and third persons.

            These verbs are formed by prefixing  to the aorist verbs of first and third persons, the last alphabet being marked by the sign .

                   I should do               

                   He should worship        

When  or  are present as prefix then this  is marked with .

                    Then he should worship                 

                     And I should bow                         

Prohibitive mood is obtained by prefixing the aorist first and third person verbs with  and marking the last alphabet with .

                   He should not play                     

                    We should not write                  

These rules are followed for feminine gender and other numbers too.

 

8. DERIVATIVES OF TRILITERALS                   

            The word representing the third person singular in the past tense ( TPS P ) normally contains three letters :

                      He heard                   

                       He honoured              

                       He opened                 

These words are known as triliterals                

Addition of more alphabets to these trilateral verbs introduces a wide scope for additional meanings. Some important forms of these derived triliterals are listed below with examples of TP.S.P. of trilateral and their derivatives.

     Derived                   Triliteral                 Infinitive                       Form or Chapter

      TP.S.P.                     TP.S.P.

                                                           

                                                    

                                                     

                                                         

                                                         

                                                      

                                                 

                                                 

 

Some of the important changes these derivatives introduce are as follows :

1. Intransitive verb changes to transitive

                           He learned ( intransitive )        

                           He taught  ( transitive )           

2. In place of one, two objects are required

                       Zaid made Hamid read the book             

3. Sense of intensity, excess of exaggeration is conveyed :

            He killed intensely or excessively            

4. Repetition or step by step execution is indicated.

            He sent down repeatedly, step by step            

5. Absorption of a condition or action is shown :

           He got cut to pieces                  

6. Absorption of a condition or action is shown :

           He got cut to pieces                  

7. Similar action by two persons/groups is shown.

           Came before one another           

8. Competition is exhibited,

           One tried to overtake another                  

9. Leaving off some work is shown :

          He gave up sleep               

The derived triliterals are treated as root words and various other forms of verbs and infinitives are derived from them.

Derivatives of are

                               

                           

 

Four and five lettered verbs which are not very common have not been discussed here.

 

CHAPTER V

 

WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS AND VERBS

 

1. PREPOSITIONS

( Nos. given after words are chapter and verse nos. of the Quran )

 from ( 16:67 ) : of ( 6:144 ); because of ( 28:73 ); among ( 3:75 ); during ( 50:40 ); any ( 3:62 ); according to

( 65:6 ); instead of ( 9:38 ); than ( 97:3 )

 

 to, for ( 2:284; 106:1 ); that ( he might become ) ( 28:8 ) let ( 65:7 ); on ( 17:107 ); about ( 10:77 )

 

 with : together

 

 with ( 2:63 ); during ( 17:79 ); in ( 15:46  ); for ( 5:45 ) by ( 38:82 ); from ( 76:6 )

 

 used for oath ( 21:57 )

 

 to, till, towards ( 17:1; 2:187 )

 

 on; upon ( 23:22 ); over ( 2:47 ) at ( 28:15 ) under ( 20:39 ); on ( condition ) ( 18:66 )

 

 in ( 11:108 ); about ( 14:10 ); into ( 15:29 ); on account of ( 60:9 ); respecting ( 2:176 ); with ( 12:82 ); compared to ( 13:26  ); concerning ( 4:176 )

 

 about ( 2:119 ); with ( 2:120 ); from ( 21:101 ) because ( 9:114 ); of ( 3:97 )

 

 until, till, yet

 

2. CONJUNCTIONS

 then; so; but; thus; however; because; so that

 

 and ( 36:27 ); with ( 10:71 ); or ( 3:111 ); so that ( 6:27 ) that is ( explaining the preceding word or sentence )

( 21:69 ); oath ( 103:1 ); although ( 6:42 ); when etc.

 

 then; again; moreover

 

  , , or; either

 

3. WORDS USED FOR QUESTIONS

 , - where;  , - why;  - where from;   - which, what;    - when;  - who, whom;  - how;  , - is, what;  - how many, how much

 

4. AFFIRMATIVE WORDS

 - yes, why not;  - yes;  - yes, why not

 

5. NEGATIVE WORDS

 - No; not is used for past tense. When it is used for aorist tense, it is normally associated with .

 

 is used for aorist tense meaning No or Not. When it is used for past tense, it is either associated with  or repeated.

 

 meaning No is used for aorist tense but gives the tense of past negative.

 

meaning Never is used for future tense.

 

 means Surely not

 

6. WORDS CONVEYING CONDITION

 - if;  - if;  - when;  - not yet;  - so that;  - that

 

7. DIRECTIONAL WORDS

 - behind;  - in front;  - before, earlier;  - below, beneath;  - over, above, upon;  - besides, other than;  - near, with;  - after;  - yesterday;  - around;  - between, among;  - then and there

 

8. OTHER PARTICLES

 - as, like;  - often;  - but;  , - but;  - so that; - as if;   only;  - wish; - means certainly. It is used in the beginning of a sentence and is used in the same sense in the middle of the sentence. It also means that;  , , - beware;  - as for

 

 

CHAPTER VI

 

PHRASES AND SENTENCES

A group of two or more words is known as a  ( compound ).

 

1. PHRASE : A group of words not giving complete sense is known as    ( phrase ).

                           This boy                             

                           The straight path      

There are two important types of phrases

a) adjective

b) possessive

 

In the adjective case quality or condition of the noun is described :

                          Hardworking boy            

                          Sweet water                      

The first noun is known as ( possessor of the quality ) and the second noun is  ( adjective ).

 

In the possessive case, there is a possessive relationship between two nouns :

                               Allahs book                

                             Khalids house                

The first noun is known as  and the second    .

 

2. SENTENCE : A group of words giving complete sense is known as   ( sentence )

                     The Quran is the book of Allah                      

                     The servant opened the door                         

In Arabic language there are two kinds of sentences ( sentence starting with noun ) and   ( sentence starting with verb )

As example of the first kind :

               The boy is standing                         

An example of the second kind can be obtained by reversing the order in the above sentence itself

                The boy is standing                        

 

In   the first noun is known as  ( subject ) and the second noun is  ( predicate ).

In  the first word is  ( predicate ) and the second is  ( subject ). ( subject ) is always a noun and  ( predicate ) may be a noun or verb.

 

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